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Penicillium crustosum

P. crustosum is a common food contaminant, particularly common in seeds, nuts and apples. P. crustosum produces potent neurotoxins (penitrems and roquefortine) that can cause muscular tremors in individuals eating contaminated foods. P. camemberti is a mold commonly found in cheeses (camembert cheese) and occasionally meats, where it can produce low levels of the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid. P. commune is commonly found indoors and on cheeses and meats. P. commune has been documented in pulmonary infections in dogs and can produce cyclopiazonic acid and possibly nephrotoxins. P. echinulatum is found most frequently on foods containing oils (e.g. margarine and cheese) but is also found indoors. P. echinulatum is capable of producing tremorgenic mycotoxins (territrems). P. solitum is commonly isolated from foods such as hard cheeses and some meats. P. solitum can produce mycotoxins (viridicatins) on such foods but does not appear to cause diseases in humans.

Water Activity (min.):


Colonizer Group:



Mycophenolic acid, Penitrem, Sterigmatocystin, and Viomellein

Penicillium crustosum
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